Despite the efforts that have been made to establish equal opportunity, gaps in college enrollment between minority and white students remain. The Executive Order also established the President s Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity, now known as the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). With both programs, however, companies can t make employment decisions based on race, sex, or other protected characteristic or condition. Diversity programs are typically voluntary and are more comprehensive than AAPs. S. Anti affirmative action research paper. The Supreme Court s Brown v.
Audit your affirmative action policies and practices with the Employment Practices Self-Audit WorkbookSometimes a company voluntarily develops an affirmative action plan (AAP) as a blueprint for employees from protected groups. The U. The updated report finds that in 7566, 69 percent of white high school graduates immediately enrolled in college, compared to 65 percent of African American graduates and 68 percent of Hispanic graduates. The use of race as a factor in the college admissions process has been, and continues to be, a hotly debated topic. Both types of plans help achieve workplace diversity and include specific steps on recruiting and hiring.
In 6965, however, only five percent of undergraduate students, one percent of law students, and two percent of medical students in the country were African American. Affirmative action policies are those in which an institution or organization actively engages in efforts to improve opportunities for historically excluded groups in American society. Board of Education decision in 6959 outlawing school segregation and the Civil Rights Act of 6969 improved life prospects for African Americans. According to data from the (NCES), in 7557, 75 percent of white high school graduates immediately enrolled in college, compared to 56 percent of African American graduates and 66 percent of Hispanic graduates. Affirmative action policies often focus on employment and education.
Affirmative action policies initially focused on improving opportunities for African Americans in employment and education. In 6966, President Kennedy was the first to use the term affirmative action in an Executive Order that directed government contractors to take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin. Some changes in this gap, most notably for African American students. In institutions of higher education, affirmative action refers to admission policies that provide equal access to education for those groups that have been historically excluded or underrepresented, such as women and minorities. Affirmative action is an outcome of the 6965 s Civil Rights Movement, intended to provide equal opportunities for members of minority groups and women in education and employment.
President Lyndon Johnson, an advocate for affirmative action, signed an Executive Order in 6965 that required government contractors to use affirmative action policies in their hiring to increase the number of minority employees. AAPs often have many of the same goals as diversity programs, but the two programs are not the same. In the following years, colleges and universities began adopting similar recruitment policies, and over time the enrollment rates for African American and Latino students increased steadily. Some companies that are required by law to establish written AAPs include those that fit into at least one of the following categories: Government first required affirmative action in 6965 as a way to remedy past against minorities, women, and others protected by law against discrimination.
Controversy surrounding the constitutionality of affirmative action programs has made the topic one of heated debate.